Hoffmann is the unrivalled master of the uncanny in literature. (…) The author has piled up too much material of the same kind. In consequence one’s grasp of the story as a whole suffers, though not the impression it makes. We must content ourselves with selecting those themes of uncanniness which are most prominent, and with seeing whether they too can fairly be traced back to infantile sources. These themes are all concerned with the phenomenon of the ‘double’, which appears in every shape and in every degree of development. Thus we have characters who are to be considered identical because they look alike. This relation is accentuated by mental processes leaping from one of these characters to another — by what we should call telepathy —, so that the one possesses knowledge, feelings and experience in common with the other. Or it is marked by the fact that the subject identifies himself with someone else, so that he is in doubt as to which his self is, or substitutes the extraneous self for his own. In other words, there is a doubling, dividing and interchanging of the self. And finally there is the constant recurrence of the same thing — the repetition of the same features or character-traits or vicissitudes, of the same crimes, or even the same names through several consecutive generations.
The Uncanny (Sigmund Freud, 1919)
- 24 Frames: Ato 1 – The Sandman (The Tales of Hoffmann, Powell & Pressburger, 1951)
- 24 Frames: Ato 2 – The Lost Reflection (Jacques Offenbach’s The Tales of Hoffmann, Michael Powell & Emeric Pressburger, 1951)
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